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Citation for Engineering and Energy

A guide to using citation styles in Engineering and Applied Science, including those used for standards and patents.

Please Note

This information is based on the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (v.8, revised October 30, 2014). Although every effort has been made to avoid errors in this guide, we encourage students to verify the information contained with the Editorial Style Manual itself or with their professor.

If you would like a more concise version of this manual, please see the Ontario Tech Guide to IEEE Citation Style.

IEEE Citation Style

In-text Citations

  • References should be cited in numerical order, according to the order of appearance.
  • The number of the reference should be enclosed in parentheses (not superscripts or brackets).
  • All authors must be named.
  • If you cite two documents, the number of the reference should be separated by a comma [4,5].
  • If you cite more than two documents, the numbers should be separated by a dash [9-11].

Example: As demonstrated by C. Jenkins [1] and Q. Mahmoud [2]...

 

References/Works Cited

  • Listed at the end of your paper in the order they were cited.
  • If no date is available, use n.d. (no date).
  • Lines of each entry are indented.
  • Name all authors, using initials only for first names.
  • Use the spelled-out word "and" before last name of additional author.
  • Locations require the city name as well as either the state (if within the U.S.) or the country (if outside of the U.S.).
  • Only the beginning word, the word appearing after a colon, and proper names are capitalized in article and book chapter titles. For the titles of journals and books, all (significant) words are capitalized.
  • For articles published in conference proceedings, the conference title must be abbreviated, with most articles and prepositions (of, the, on) omitted. Use the CAS Search Index or the IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines to determine the abbreviated form of a conference title.
  • Titles of books, journals, and conference are in italics.
  • Page ranges are shown by using pp. Single pages are shown by using p.
  • Citing online sources is done by following the standard for a particular source, and then adding its designation as an online source and where it can be located (database, URL, or DOI*).

 

For additional guidance on grammar and usage, consult The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition).

*DOI is a digital object identifier that is used to embed the location and metadata for an electronic document so that it can be easily accessed.

Sample References in IEEE Citation

Article in a Electronic Journal

[Citation number]  A. A. Author(s). (Year, Month). Article Title. Journal Title [Medium of publication]. Vol. no.(Issue no.), Page numbers. Location/DOI.

[1] W. Hughes. (2001, Aug.). Evaluating plans of work. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management [Online]. 8(4), pp. 257-271. Available: Business Source Complete.

 

Book Chapter (Print)

[Citation number] A. A. Author(s), "Chapter title," in Title of book. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year, Page numbers.  

[2] K. L. Jones, "Normal contact of inelastic solids," in Contact Mechanics. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985, pp. 153-201.

Note: Use the two letter, common abbreviation for states. Use the two letter abbreviation for a country if the book is published outside of Canada or the United States. Publisher names are abbreviated (removing the words press, publisher, etc.) unless it's the name of a publisher affiliated with an educational institution.

 

Book (Electronic)

[Citation number] A. A. Author(s). (Year, Month, Day). Title of book (xth ed.). [Medium of publication]. Volume(issue). Location.

[3] M. Farzaneh, S. Faroki, and W. A. Chisholm. (2013). Electrical design of overhead power transmission lines [Online]. Available: http://library.books24x7.com/toc.aspx?site=U8N3G&bookid=47696.

 

Book with Two Authors

[Citation number] A. A. Author, and A. A. Author, Title of Book, xth ed. City, State/Country: Publisher.

[4] C. D. Anderson and J. Anderson, Electric and Hybrid Cars: A History, 2nd ed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010.

 

Edited/Translated Book

[Citation number] A. A. Author(s), Ed(s)., Book title, City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

[5] A. More and A. Varma, Eds., Root Engineering: Basic and Applied Concepts, New York, NY: Springer, 2014.

 

Paper in a Published Conference Proceeding

[Citation Number]  A. A. Author(s), "Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Title of Conference Proceedings, Location, Year, Page numbers.

[6] C. Shroder and L. Hertel, "Development of a low-budget robotic sailboat," in Proc. 6th Int. Robotic Sailing Conf., Brest, France, 2013, pp. 13-24.

 

Technical Report

Print: [Citation Number] A. A. Author(s), “Report title,” Name of Company, Company Location, Report number, Year.

[7] J. T. Dunn, R. B. Finlay and R.A. Olmstead. "Advanced CANDU reactors." Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Canada, AECL-9817, 1988.

Electronic: [Citation Number] A. A. Author(s). (Year, Month). Report title. Name of Company, Company Location. [Medium of publication]. Available: site/path/file.

[8] J. Calnan and L. Valiquette. (2010, March). Paying heed to the canaries in the coal mine: Strategies to attract and retain more women in the engineering profession through green light leadership. Engineers Canada, Ottawa, Canada. [Online]. Available: http://www.engineerscanada.ca/sites/default/files/w_Canaries_in_the_Coal_Mine.pdf.

Note: The company location includes the city and either the state (if located in the U.S.) or the country (if located outside the U.S.).

 

Theses and Dissertations

[Citation number] A. A. Author, “Thesis/Dissertation Title,” Degree thesis or dissertation, Department, University, Location of University, Year.

[9]  M. Ansari, "Modeling and vibration analysis of a rocking-mass gyroscope system," M.A.Sc. thesis, Mech. Eng., Univ. Ontario Inst. Technol., Oshawa, Canada, 2008.

Note: The department, university, and university location information are all abbreviated. If the name of the state is included in the name of the university, omit it from the university location information.

 

Web Page

[Citation Number] A. A. Author(s). (Year, Month, Day). Title of web page (edition, if known) [Medium of publication]. Available: URL.

[10] Engineers Canada. (n.d.). Examination syllabus [Online]. Available: http://www.engineerscanada.ca/examination-syllabus

Note: The author may be a person, multiple people, or an organization.

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