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Citation for Engineering and Energy

A guide to using citation styles in Engineering and Applied Science, including those used for standards and patents.

Please Note

This information is based on the current Guide for Conference Publications, available through the ASME website. Although every effort has been made to avoid errors in this guide, we encourage students to verify this information with the information contained on the site itself or with their professor.

Style Requirements


In-Text Citations

  • References should be cited in numerical order, according to the order of appearance.
  • The number of the reference should be enclosed in parentheses (not superscripts or brackets).
  • All authors must be named.
  • If you cite two documents, the number of the reference should be separated by a comma [4,5].
  • If you cite more than two documents, the numbers should be separated by a dash [9-11].


Example: It was shown by Smith and Tyrell [1] that the aerodynamic qualities of the vehicle suffered under these conditions.


Reference List

  • Listed at the end of your paper in the order they were cited.
  • If no date is available, use n.d. (no date).
  • Lines of each entry is indented.
  • Name all authors, using initials only for first names.
  • Use the spelled-out word "and" before last name of additional author.
  • Every (important) word in a title is capitalized (not and, or).
  • Titles of books and conference are in italics, journal and conference paper titles are in "quotes," and journal volume numbers are in bold.
  • Page ranges are shown by using pp. Single pages are shown by using p.
  • Online items must be designated by adding from url before the url.

Sample References in ASME Citation

Article in a Journal

[Citation Number]  Author(s), Year, “Article Title,” Journal Title, Vol. no. (Issue no.), Page numbers.

[1] Barnes, M., 2001, “Stresses in Solenoids,” J. Appl. Phys., 48(5), pp. 2000–2008.


Book (or Chapter) with One Author

[Citation Number] Author’s surname, Author's initial(s), Year, Title of Book, Publisher, Location. [For chapters in a book, add chapter number (if any) at the end of the citation following the abbreviation, “Chap.”]

[2] Jones, J., 2000, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 6.


Book with Two Authors

[Citation number] Author’s surname, Author's initial(s), and Author's surname, Author's initial(s), Year, Title of Book, Publisher, Location. [Note: "and" comes before the last name in the list.]

[3] Leobacher, G. and Pillichshammer, F, 2014, Introduction to Quasi-Monte Carlo Integration and Applications, Birkhäuser, Cham, DE.


Edited/Translated Book

To the standard author entry, insert the names of the editor or translator between title and publication information, separated by a comma. The full surname followed by initals are still used to represent the editor/translator's name, with their title (Ed., Eds. or Trans.) following. [Note: omit any professional titles (such as Dr.) but keep personal ones (such as Jr. or III)].

[4] Morte, A. and Varma, A., Eds., 2014, Root Engineering: Basic and Applied Concepts, Springer, New York, NY.


Paper in a Published Conference Proceeding

[Citation Number]  Author(s), Year, “Article Title,” Conference Proceedings, Location, Vol. (if given), Page numbers.

[5] Lee, Y., Korpela, S. A., and Horne, R. N., 1982, “Structure of Multi-Cellular Natural Convection in a Tall Vertical Annulus,” Proc. 7th International Heat Transfer Conference, U. Grigul et al., eds., Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 2, pp. 221–226.


Technical Report

[Citation Number] Author(s), Year, “Report Title,” Report Number (if any), Publisher, Location.

[6] Leverant, G.R., 2000, “Turbine Rotor Material Design – Final Report,” DOT/FAA/AR-00/64, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C.


Theses and Dissertations

[Citation number]  Author, Year, “Thesis/Dissertation Title,” Degree thesis or dissertation, Department, University, Location of University.

[7] Tung, C. Y., 1982, “Evaporative Heat Transfer in the Contact Line of a Mixture,” Ph.D. dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.


Web Page

[Citation Number] Author(s), Year, “Title of Web Page.” Report Number (if applicable), From url.

[8] McBride, B.J. and Gordon, S., 1996, “Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications – II. Users Manual and Program Description,” NASA Ref Publ. No. 1311, from

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