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Citation

Short 'How-To' Citation Style Guides

Books

Visit the Library to find copies of the official style manuals:

Recommended Websites

The following websites provide support and examples for a variety of citation styles. 

Citing Online Sources and Social Media

From websites to tweets to YouTube videos, properly citing non-traditional online sources can be a challenge. The links below provide examples and guidance for citing a variety of online sources. 

APA

The APA's official Style Blog has numerous posts explaining how to cite online sources that are not included in the publication manual.


MLA

The MLA Style Center posts tips and examples for citing a variety of online sources. You can search their Ask the MLA FAQs.

The Purdue OWL also provides examples for citing different electronic sources in MLA, including tweets, YouTube videos, blog posts and comments.  

Citing Indigenous Elders & Knowledge Teachers in APA

The APA style manual does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. The NorQuest College Library has developed this citation style in response to this need and we thank them for allowing us to share this information.

In-Text Citations

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format should follow the same guidelines as noted in the paraphrase and direct quote tabs: 

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2004).

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004).

Reference List

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.

For example:

Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

 

Citing Indigenous Elders & Knowledge Keepers in MLA

The MLA style manual does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. The NorQuest College Library has developed this citation style in response to this need and we thank them for allowing us to share this information.

In-text Citations

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format should be formatted as:

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the...

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal).

Reference List

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Citation Management

A citation manager is a tool that you can download or use in your browser. Citation managers allow you to:

There are many different citation managers available.

Help

For help writing your assignments, including your bibliography or works cited list, contact your instructor or Student Learning Centre.

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