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Indigenous Studies

Citing Indigenous Elders & Knowledge Keepers in APA

The APA style manual does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. The NorQuest College Library has developed this citation style in response to this need and we thank them for allowing us to share this information.

In-Text Citations

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format should follow the same guidelines as noted in the paraphrase and direct quote tabs: 

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2004).

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004).

Reference List

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.

For example:

Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

 

Citing Indigenous Elders & Knowledge Keepers in MLA

The MLA style manual does not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. The NorQuest College Library has developed this citation style in response to this need and we thank them for allowing us to share this information.

In-text Citations

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format should be formatted as:

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the...

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal).

Reference List

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Citation

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